GEO-Mobile Radio (GMR) is a standard for satellite telephony that follows the GSM standard in many ways. Only the three lower layers of the OSI model differ between GMR and GSM (for GMPRS only the two lowest layers).
Two versions of the standard exist: GMR-1 (ETSI TS 101 376) and GMR-2 (ETSI TS 101 377). For GMR-1 three releases exist. Release 3 of GMR-1 adopted turbo codes in 2009. The standard is characterized by low throughput requirements of less than 1 Mbit/s.
|Standard||GMR-1 Release 3 (GMR-3G or GMR-1 3G)|
|Documents||ETSI TS 101 376-5-3 V3.1.1 (GMR-3G)|
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|Turbo Codes||Binary parallel concatenated convolutional code (PCCC), 8 states, base code rate 1/5, block lengths 200 to 6,000 bits, tail bits.|